EN 2021, 46% DES MARQUES INVESTIRONT MOINS EN COMMUNICATION QU’EN 2019

LE 27 OCTOBRE 2020 À 21:35

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PAR AMELLE NEBIA

La quatrième vague du Baromètre de l’Union des marques, lancé en avril dernier, dévoile ses résultats (1) dans cet automne particulièrement compliqué. Les craintes et les difficultés se critalisent autour : du renforcement des règles sanitaires (64%), du manque de visibilité à court terme (59%) mais aussi du durcissement de la règlementation publicitaire (52%) et développement d’un environnement hostile aux marques et à la publicité (45%).Les items liés au changement de comportement des consommateurs, à leur frilosité ou à l’absence de croissance sur le marché, n’arrivent qu’aux 5e,7e et 6e rang.

source: https://www.cbnews.fr/etudes/image-barometre-union-marques-55908

PRIORITÉS POUR LES PROCHAINS MOIS ?

68% des marques intègrent désormais les enjeux environnementaux, sociétaux et sociaux dans la majorité de leurs décisions selon le baromètre…S’adapter aux contraintes dans un environnement instable demeure la priorité pour 70% des entreprises dans les prochains mois. Le “new normal” qualifie aujourd’hui le comportement des consommateurs et plus généralement notre façon de vivre mais ce nouveau paradigmes’applique aussi aux entreprises et aux marques.

Unions des marques

AVANT D’INTERDIRE…

A la crise sanitaire et économique se sontajoutés pour les marques et le marché publicitaire des projets d’interdictions, de taxations, de restrictions ou d’encadrement, amenant l’Union des marques et l’ensemble des acteurs du marché à réagir à travers la tribune “Avant d’interdire“. Les entreprises et les marques sont unanimes sur le fait qu’elles aient l’occasion de “contribuer efficacement à l’accélération de la transition écologique (98%) selon le baromètre“. Cette pression amène les marques à affirmer 61 % aujourd’hui avoir revu ou être sur le point de revoir leur raison d’être.

DIGITAL : UNE PRIORITÉ (AUSSI)

Le digital apparait moins touché par la crise que les autres vecteurs. S’agissant de publicité bien-sûr, mais aussi en termes de développement. Ainsi, les entreprises considèrent également le digital en général comme une opportunité (45%) et même comme une priorité (34%) pour les mois à venir, en intégrant notamment la création ou le développement d’une offre e-commerce et l’ouverture de nouveaux canaux de distribution. Au vu du baromètre, les marques notent que leur digitalisation continue de progresser depuis le début de la crise. C’est notamment le cas pour les process et organisation du travail, pour lesquelles une entreprise répondante sur deux s’attribue une note de 6,8 sur 10, voire une note d’excellence (8 à 10).

INVESTISSEMENTS EN COMMUNICATION…

Pour près d’une marque sur deux (46%), ses investissements en communication en 2021 seront inférieurs à ceux de 2019. Une baisse conséquente puisque 67 % estiment qu’elle sera supérieure à 10%. Pour 27 % des marques, ces budgets seront égaux à 2019, et pour 19 % supérieurs. Seuls 8 % ne se positionnent pas encore. En ce début d’octobre, avant l’annonce du couvre-feu et le durcissement des mesures sanitaires, les marques semblaient vouloir amorcer la reprise via des perspectives d’investissements pour cette fin d’année au niveau de ce qu’étaient leurs prévisions il y a un an (71 % des marques). Leurs motivations étaient multiples : maintenir ou développer leur part de voix (62 %), soutenir des produits et services adaptés au contexte (53 %) ou encore maintenir le lien avec le public (41 %). Ils sont également 41 % à investir pour favoriser la reprise. A noter également qu’alors qu’avant l’été, 42% des marques envisageaient de diminuer leurs prises de paroles à la fin de l’année, elles ne sont désormais plus que 27 %. Pour ces dernières, c’est d’abord leur situation économique qui freine leurs investissements. Si le niveau des prises de paroles devrait donc être plus élevé au quatrième trimestre qu’envisagé en juin dernier, aucun changement majeur en revanche n’est à relever quant à l’importance accordée à tel ou tel média. Ainsi, le digital qui fait toujours l’objet d’efforts de la part des marques: environ 8 marques répondantes sur 10 (85 %) déclarent ainsi avoir l’intention de maintenir ou renforcer leurs budgets display/programmatique (soit +12 points), 83 % leurs budgets search et 79%leurs budgets réseaux sociaux. Viennent ensuite la télévision (65 % de maintien ou de hausse des investissements) et le retail média (63 %), puis la communication extérieure (49 %), la radio (47 %) et la presse(33 %). Comme précédemment, le cinéma et les opérations événementielles viennent clôturer ce classement, avec près de 90 % de baisse/annulation ou report, pour seulement à peine plus de 10 % de hausse ou maintien des investissements. Globalement ce classement reste quasiment identique au précédent, avec cependant, une progression des perspectives d’investissements pour la télévision (+15% de hausse ou maintien), le display/programmatique(+12%) et la communication extérieure (+ 10%). Parallèlement aux investissements médias, on observe que les stratégies orientées clients devraient continuer d’être essentielles pour de nombreuses marques et donc pour accompagner la reprise au cours des prochains mois. Ainsi, on note que la data/CRM reste à un niveau élevé d’intention d’investissement (82% de hausse ou maintien au dernier quadrimestre, soit 8 points de plus qu’en juin dernier). De la même manière, les budgets consacrés à la relation et expérience client que 64 % des marques indiquent vouloir faire progresser (+ 20 points).

L’HORIZON ?

A l’heure actuelle, les répondants se montrent un peu plus optimistes qu’auparavant quant à la situation économique de leur entreprise (7,7 sur 10, +0,7 points). En revanche, ils le sont moins pour celle de la France (5,9). Pour rappel, après une chute du PIB Français estimé à –9% en 2020, le rebond pour 2021 serait de l’ordre de +6% selon les projections du FMI.

(1) Méthodologie: enquête CAWI (computer assisted web interviewing) réalisée auprès de 48annonceurs de tous les secteurs d’activité, membres de l’Union des marques, entre le 2et le 16 octobre2020.

‘You get 2 seconds to engage consumers online’: Mars neuroscientist shares key findings

By Kenneth Hein

This 15-second M&M’s spot scored best online.

Mars shares key findings from one of the largest, on-going neuroscience studies in the world. The problem is marketers may not like the results. Have we got your attention?

Digital ads are now the equivalent of a print or out-of-home ad. Why? Because extensive neuroscience studies, conducted by Mars, show that similar to these traditional methods, marketers now only have about two seconds to capture consumers’ attention in the digital realm.

Source: https://www.thedrum.com/news/2020/08/13/you-get-2-seconds-engage-consumers-online-mars-neuroscientist-shares-key-findings?utm_campaign=Newsletter_Weekly_Media&utm_source=pardot&utm_medium=email

Mars, the family-owned global company behind brands like M&M’s, Wrigley’s gum, Skittles, and the like, thrives on impulse buys for many of its products. What Sorin Patilinet, global consumer marketing insights director, Mars, Inc., and his team in the communications lab, are trying to solve for is how to first draw attention and then create an emotional connection. The two together are the magic formula for triggering impulse purchases.

“You don’t go to the store with gum on your shopping list,” says Patilinet. “We want to reach as many people as possible to build this memory structure, which will be triggered at the point of purchase, especially since half of our categories are mostly impulse buys like chocolate and gum.”

His team has spent the past six months working with RealEyes and other partners to develop what it calls the “future of pre-testing.” Through anonymous “facial coding,” it can detect attention and emotion. It has tested 130 digital ads across key geographies from the US to China in various durations ‑ six, 15, or 30-seconds and even long formats on YouTube, Facebook, and other platforms.

This is the latest tool within one of the largest neuromarketing studies in the world, which is now in its fifth year. One of the biggest takeaways from it all: “Marketers would be shocked if they knew how little active attention some of their executions are getting,” says Patilinet. “They think that people watch all the 15-seconds, and then they find out that in some cases, it’s only two seconds.”

In addition to the new “future of pre-testing” tool, Mars has gathered 4,000 campaigns from which they have identified a direct sales impact. They’ve done so in partnership with Nielsen, Catalina, IRI, Kantar and GFK. Of those thousands of ads, they’ve tested 250 for various elements of the cognitive process, attention, emotion, and memory. They’ve learned from the good and the bad to develop an understanding of what a “four-star ad” looks and feels like. The key finding: attention is a strong proxy for sales impact.

But attention alone isn’t the answer. “We look at it as a ladder. The first need is attention because we know that attention is declining. Once you’ve gotten that attention, you can then start eliciting emotions. We’ve proven that by building emotions, you can encode your distinctive assets into the consumer’s brain much, much better. And then [those assets] can be recalled. So, the ultimate goal is not emotion. The ultimate goal is memory encoding. But that happens faster through emotions than through rational messages.”

There are four challenges when it comes to creating emotional ads.

Emotion takes time

The number one thing Mars realized is that it’s very difficult to elicit emotions in short form. The creative moves into a very tactical, rational space because of the short duration. A Facebook ad on newsfeed is seen for two seconds and a YouTube skippable ad is skipped as soon as possible. “So, we front load our creative. And this creates a little bit of tension with our belief that ads require emotional messages,” says Patilinet. “The ads that we tested have lower levels of emotion. Our conclusion was that it’s probably because we’ve moved from 30 seconds to now six seconds, that it’s difficult to elicit emotions. And because we need our logo and we need our brand [in those six seconds], it’s hard to make the ad emotional without a story.”

You can’t trick your customers

Attention too often becomes the element tricking consumers into watching your ads. “We’re not really looking for that because we know that that does not create a long-term relationship. We want to teach them about something and then show them the product. Digital ads now are very similar to what out-of-home ads were in the past or print ads because you basically have one shot in which to say your message and that’s it.”

You need to strike at peak attention

Brands need to show their product or to highlight their brand at moments of peak attention. “We’ve landed on peak attention as a KPI that that drives success in digital,” he says. This issue is marketers have a maximum of five seconds to make in impact. “The only thing we can do is to elicit some polite attention within the duration that they watch.”

Don’t forget the art

Ads are a mix of art and science, says Patilinet. “We’re trying as much as possible to push the science. But you can only push it up to a certain level because there’s the art that your agency will come up with. We don’t want to become overly technical.”

So, what works? Here is one M&M’s ad that really scored high on attention and emotion. No change was needed to it.

Patilinet and his team will continue to investigate how to strike the correct balance by leveraging neuroscience. They will also use it to remain rooted in reality. “I’d love to still live in the mirage, but I have my feet on the ground. We just need to be mindful that attention doesn’t become lower that because we’ve been doing this ourselves. Too many ads, too much clutter on websites has created this attitude of removing ads from your life.”

To keep up with all our dedicated US coverage, sign up for the free daily briefing newsletter.

This article is about: North AmericaNeuroscienceMarsDigitalYoutubeMarketingDigital MarketingDigital AdvertisingDigitalBrand

Corona Virus Paradox ? Les Belges utilisent massivement (+20%) la TV et les canaux digitaux (news et “entertainment”) pendant que les annonceurs les désertent… Si il y a communication, la “meaningfulness” est indispensable (Source: Havas Media Belgium – vague 2)

Ci-dessus la  seconde vague de cette analyse faite par l’équipe d’Havas Media sur l’impact du Corona Virus (Covid-19) sur son métier en Belgique. Elle consiste en quatre parties :

Premièrement, il y a une mise-à-jour des audiences TV et internet. Les derniers chiffres confirment l’estimation que nous avions faite la semaine passée (que la consommation TV augmenterait de 20%) et montrent que la programmation de la catégorie entertainment en profite aussi. Il est plus important que jamais de choisir des émissions « meaningful ».

Screenshot 2020-03-26 10.06.55.png

Quant aux internautes, ils sont très intéressés par les sites news (hors contexte app), une tendance dont les newsbrands profitent plus que les broadcasters audiovisuels. Nous voyons que le device préféré pour visiter ces sites reste le mobile, même si les premiers chiffres semblent indiquer qu’en lockdown les gens utilisent plus qu’avant leur desktop. Sur les réseaux sociaux nous voyons que le coût par reach diminue, une tendance qui s’explique par l’offre et la demande : les Belges utilisent les réseaux sociaux plus activement et une partie des annonceurs ont annulé ou retiré leurs communications.

Screenshot 2020-03-26 10.10.29.png

Cette observation nous mène au deuxième point de l’analyse : il y a un véritable paradoxe entre ce que font les consommateurs avec les médias (en consommer plus) et ce que font les annonceurs (en avoir peur). Pourtant il est possible, voire important et recommandé, de continuer à communiquer en période de crise. Afin de le faire correctement, il est important de voir comment le consommateur se comporte – non pas uniquement d’un point de vue média. Ceci constitue la troisième partie de l’analyse.

Screenshot 2020-03-26 10.12.49.png
Dans la quatrième partie de l’analyse, nous démontrons ce fait à l’aide de campagnes touchantes qui ont été lancées – aussi bien en Belgique qu’ailleurs. La façon dont certains supermarchés ont communiqué ces dernières semaines mérite l’estime, mais il y a aussi des exemples des secteurs déclarés non-essentiels et dont les magasins ont donc dû fermer. L’analyse se termine par quelques slides sur la communication du secteur média même.

A Connected World in Flux: 10 Insights for Marketing and Business Leaders (McKinsey Global Institute)

“Major trends are reshaping business and society, including the way we live and work,” according to the McKinsey Global Institute.

That “we” includes our customers, of course, but also us as marketers—those of us who need to venture out into that rapidly transforming world to do our jobs.

And to do that job well, we need to have strategic insight—an understanding of the big picture—including major trends worldwide. An infographic from the McKinsey & Company institute highlights 10 sets of charts and data on the global economy that offers a look at 10 top trends.

From automation’s effect on gender at work (N0. 6), to regional labor market trends in the US (No. 5), to changing consumption costs (No. 8) and more… the infographic provides a useful overview of the global economy in which we operate.

200107-INFOGRAPHIC-Ten-highlights-from-2019-research-mckinsey.jpg

BMMA – Thursday 23rd January 2020 at 12:00 pm (Cercle de Lorraine) – Lunch with The Marketers of The Year: What does it take to become an exceptional marketer, being a woman or being a digital leader ?

 

Elke Dens, Marketing director at VisitFlanders

Elke graduated in 2001 as a Communication Scientist at the Catholic University of Leuven. After her studies, she started working there, first as an assistant in mass communication and marketing, and later as a PhD student studying the impact of word of mouth and influentials on travel behavior. It was the beginning of her passion for the tourism industry and it has not disappeared ever since. In 2004, Elke started out in the national tourism agency VISITFLANDERS, working on marketing activities to stimulate the domestic market. In 2008, she internally switched position towards online marketing. In 2012, she became the marketing director, responsible for all marketing activities of the VISITFLANDERS office in Brussels and the network abroad. Since 2016, she combines this current position with the chairmanship of the European Travel Commission marketing group. Together with 32 European countries, the European Travel Commission strives to build the brand ‘Europe’, and develop and promote it as a long-haul destination.

 

Véronique Vergeynst, Head of Marketing, Brussels Airport Company

Véronique graduated in 1993 as a licensee in Commercial Sciences at ICHEC. She started her career on the field as sales promotor before moving to agency side at VVL/BBDO as a junior account manager on local and international brands. In 1998, she decided to switch side and discover the life of an advertiser where she held different marketing positions and worked for brands like Ericsson mobile phones, Warner Bros & Eurostar. In 2007, she stepped into the consulting business at The House of Marketing, where she held various positions, from Senior Consultant to Business development and member of the managing team. Her curiosity and entrepreneurship pushed her to continue her career as a freelance marketing consultant combining marketing projects at Belga Films, Alpro or Colruyt Group while starting and developing her own brand in the pop-up stores business, Miss Lemon.

She was approached by Brussels Airport Company in 2017 to start the Corporate Marketing department, an offer she could not refuse : combining her love for travel with her marketing skills was actually the job of her dreams !

How Aldi boosted retail traffic while reducing its flyer drops (‘Most effective use of Mobile’ / DADI Awards 2019 / Havas Media Group Danemark)

Havas Media Group won the ‘Most effective use of Mobile’ category at The DADI Awards 2019 with its ‘GPS data/customer mapping’ campaign for Aldi. Here, the agency reveals the challenges faced and the strategies used to deliver this successful project.

The challenge

In Denmark, the distribution of flyers was poised to be taken over by one single company, creating a monopolistic situation that would inevitably translate itself into a steep price increase, calculations put the increase at 40%.

source: https://www.thedrum.com/news/2019/12/17/how-aldi-boosted-retail-traffic-while-reducing-its-flyer-drops

Seeing that flyer distribution was a massive operation in which Aldi was ‘carpet flyering’ (dropping a flyer in every household in any given neighbourhood) in every city where there was an Aldi supermaket without any regard to targeting, the 40% increase would not be sustainable. Moreover, a recent survey in the country revealed that more than 80% of Danes don’t read Aldi’s weekly printed leaflet.

Closing the Flyer distribution operation was out of the question because despite a low share of readers, sales modelling demonstrated a positive ROI for Aldi and other discount / retail chains, despite the low share of readers.

Taking all of this into consideration, we came to the conclusion that we needed to develop a much more intelligent and cost reduced way to distribute our flyers, we needed to find a way to distribute the flyers in areas where we knew they would convert in business for Aldi, where people would read them and use them, we needed to pinpoint and target our distribution.

Moreover, we also needed to move Aldi into the 21st century with a digital flyer that would attract younger readers, reducing their dependence on printed flyers.

The strategy

We used data and technology to provide insight to optimize the distribution model for printed retail flyers. This optimization would in turn allow us to reinvest savings into the production of a digital flyer and its subsequent promotion.

This strategy would allow us to intelligently reduce the distribution of leaflets in areas with low or no potential/customers, or ad new area if relevant for each of the individual shops. The idea was to match the distribution area with the actual Aldi customers.

With the savings from reducing the printed leaflets, we initiated a digital transformation for Aldi to give them an online presence – specifically against a younger and more connected target group.

Along with increasing the number of digital readers, the online presence also had the objective of raising Aldi’s general awareness levels, and thereby also increase the number of readers of the printed version.

The campaign

We started by digitally mapping customers that shopped at each of Aldi’s 189 stores with the help of geo-data. We did this by using mobile app-data from those customers. Once they were mapped pinpointed where they lived thanks to a key insight: their night-time location – if you remained on the same location from 02-04 am, chances where that you were sleeping at home.

We were able to pinpoint where our customers lived, including at the granular level of distances from their closest ALDI Shops: :

Before the operation, the number of flyers that where being distributed numbered 1,227,656. In Q2 we reduced flyers by 310 000, this had such a minimal impact on sales that we could not really link it to the operation. In Q3, with the knowledge, experience and evaluation from the first reduction we applied a second reduction plan (we eliminated 175K) now bringing the distribution down to 742,922 households.

With close to a 50 % reduction in flyering compared to the previous year, some stores did however experience reduced turnover, so after a detailed evaluation of every single shop, including a competitive analysis and other local influential factors, the distribution was raised to approx. 860,087.

We also developed all digital assets for the digital flyer – And launched it all the while updating and optimizing products, visuals, animations etc. on a weekly basis.

The results

  • We dropped the number of flyers being distributed from 1,227,656 to 860,087, a 33% reduction.
  • We saved ALDI a significant amount of distribution budget.
  • The number of readers of the printed flyers increased for the first time in four years by 4.9%.
  • The number of readers of the digital version of ALDI’s leaflet increased by 24.1 pct. (9.1 pct. point above target/objective, 60 pct. above target).

Additionally, we managed to reach a totally new segment thanks to the digitalization of the flyer: a much more modern, younger, urban family segment that spends more than the traditional Aldi customer. In this process it instantly became very clear that urban areas had a much higher performance, when being targeted with Aldi’s digital leaflet.

This project was a winner at The DADIs 2019.

The ‘digital paradox’ facing the media industry in 2020

media predictions

Technology will continue to redefine the media landscape in 2020, creating opportunities and challenges for marketers.

 

JANE OSTLER

Global Head of Media, Insights Division

DIGITAL 04.12.2019 / 08:00

As ad spend on social and tech platforms continues to grow, technology innovations will also enable a renaissance in real-world engagement. According to Kantar’s global 2020 Media Trends & Predictions report marketers and media owners will be challenged to develop the skills, engagement models and measurement capabilities to meaningfully engage consumers in the crowded media landscape.

 

source: https://uk.kantar.com/tech/digital/2019/the-digital-paradox-facing-the-media-industry-in-2020/

Kantar predicts there will be a digital paradox; while new and evolving media channels will create opportunities, the deluge of digital touchpoints will make it more difficult to connect with consumers. Marketers will also need to navigate the ‘data dilemma,’ meeting consumer demand for relevant, personalised content, without breaching trust and privacy. And as third-party cookies start to crumble, advertisers will need to find alternative measurement solutions.

Kantar’s 2020 Media Trends and Predictions fall into three major themes:

The technology trends transforming the media landscape:

  • 5G finally gets real: The marketing industry will be one of the key beneficiaries of the 5G era, enabling far greater capabilities to reach and engage with consumers  but taking advantage of the 5G opportunity will require a significant transformation from marketers.
  • The battle of the streaming platforms heats up: New players will see the battle of the streaming platforms heat up, but an increasingly cluttered market will drive subscription fatigue among consumers.
  • Turning up the volume: Brands will turn up the volume and find their voice as we enter a new age of audio advertising. Newer audio channels are poised to gain mainstream prominence.
  • Content meets commerce: Content and commerce will converge as ‘shopvertising’ evolves from shoppable social to shoppable TV and digital out-of-home resulting in a contraction of the closed-loop marketing cycle.

The spaces that brands can credibly occupy:

  • Brands get back to reality: Brands will balance their digital presence with more real-world experiences, meaning we could see a slowdown in the pace of digital advertising growth.
  • Brands take a stand: Taking the lead from consumers, brands will become more radical in 2020. But they need to ensure their media strategy is aligned with their values and purpose.
  • Influencer marketing must measure what matters: Influencer marketing will mature as brands start to collaborate more deeply and take measurement more seriously in 2020.
  • Esports goes mainstream: esports will go mainstream over the next 12 months, presenting lucrative opportunities for the media owners and advertisers that learn the rules of the game.

The context and catalysts for change

  • The trend towards media in-housing: The trend towards media in-housing will continue as more brands build their own teams of digital experts, pushing agencies and advertisers out of their traditional comfort zones, into a new collaborative and exciting space.
  • Changing the cookies recipe: The demise of cookies could leave many marketers in the dark. Advertisers need to prepare now for the new “mixed economy”. Direct integrations between publishers and measurement partners will enable true cross-publisher measurement for the first time.
  • Doing the right thing with data: Faced with impending legislation like the California Consumer Privacy Act  in January 2020, privacy ethics will come to the fore and marketers will design personalisation initiatives with a people-first, rather than tech-first, mentality.
  • Campaign 2020, crowding and clutter: Political advertising will create crowding and clutter in 2020, especially in the U.S. media landscape. Brand advertisers will need to rethink their strategy during campaign season.

2020 will be an exciting year for marketers. Increased advertising and content possibilities, along with the data generated, create a plethora of opportunities for marketers and media owners. With new opportunities though come new challenges. Emerging foundational technologies could transform media usage, and other industry shifts, such as the demise of third-party cookies, will force marketers to evolve how they measure audiences across screens and wider campaign effectiveness. Other channels, like influencer marketing and the newer audio channels, will face a make-or-break moment; their credibility could be at risk unless they evolve and live up to their promise. Marketers will need to improve their understanding of how different touchpoints effectively work for their brands – online and off.

Andy Brown, CEO, Media Division at Kantar, said: “We are launching Media Trends & Predictions at a critical time for the industry. Bringing together expertise and currency-grade data from across Kantar, this collection provides a window into the forces that are shaping the media landscape and we look forward to continuing these important discussions with our clients and partners throughout 2020 and beyond.”

For more information please visit mediapredictions.kantar.com.

Mise en perspective des impacts écologiques du numérique (Source: Greenit.fr)

 

Depuis les deux rapports du shift project, sur la sobriété numérique et la vidéo en ligne, et avec de plus la semaine dernière la sortie de l’étude de GreenIT.fr, on entend beaucoup parler de la pollution due au numérique. Ces études sérieuses sont là pour rappeler que le numérique n’est pas immatériel, et qu’il doit, comme les autres secteurs, s’intérroger sur sa croissance, son efficacité et ses usages dans un monde fini.

source: https://raphael-lemaire.com/2019/11/02/mise-en-perspective-impacts-numerique/?fbclid=IwAR0YDZh85CRSL3IrXtPMDnZlcI0-jN4ylAX5GP7b5Mk2Vibn00LTFTBv8uU

Mais, les médias étant ce qu’ils sont, on a vu fleurir des titres racoleurs blamant la jeunesse connectée faussement écolo. On voit aussi des conseils peu pertinents se transmettre et rester dans la tête des gens pour leur simplicité et leur attrait , comme « supprime tes mails et évite la fonction Reply All ». Les chiffres et les constats sont parfois pris hors contexte sans comparaison avec d’autre activités et usages.

C’est vrai qu’il est toujours compliqué de bien visualiser les ordres de grandeurs. C’est donc ce que je me suis attelé à faire avec des bulles colorées.

Voici d’abord une comparaison en taille des données qui circulent typiquement sur le réseau d’un particulier :

Comparaison de taille de différents types de données

On voit qu’on peut faire tout ce qu’on veut avec ses mails, en un épisode de série ou deux, tout est « annulé ». La vidéo est de loin le sujet principal quand on parle de données.

Mais là on est dans le pur numérique. Pour comparer avec d’autres choses du quotidien, j’ai ensuite pris une métrique pour laquelle on trouve des données facilement : les émissions de GES, mesurées en kg équivalent co2.

D’abord avec des choses dont l’échelle est comparable avec l’impact du visionage d’une vidéo en ligne en France :

Comparaison des émissions de GES d'une vidéo en ligne et d'autres actes du quotidien

On voit qu’il est tout à fait cohérent d’être flexitarien et de regarder Stranger Things.

Si vous avez de bon yeux, vous pouvez voir le petit point rouge de l’email à coté du point bleu de la vidéo… (non ce n’est pas vrai je ne l’ai pas mis, mais vous pouvez l’imaginer!)

Voici maintenant une échelle permettant de visualiser l’impact de la fabrication des appareils, là où se trouve vraiment le sujet des impacts écologiques du numérique :

Comparaison des émissions de GES d'un an vidéo en lignen de la fabrication d'appareils et d'autres actes du quotidien

Notez bien que le point bleu de la vidéo est ici multiplié par 365 par rapport au graphique précédent.

Bien sur il y a plein d’autres choses à prendre en compte, notamment l’épuisement des métaux et autres matériaux rares pour la fabrication des appareils. Ces métriques montreraient également la domination de la fabrication par rapport à l’usage.

Laissez vos emails tranquilles, la grosse bonne action en numérique est de faire durer le plus longtemps possible les appareils et d’éviter d’acheter des gadgets. Ensuite on peut réduire son usage de vidéo ou réduire la résolution.

Les données viennent de GreenIT.fr (site et études) et du Shift Project (via les deux rapports sur le numérique). Pour le calcul de l’impact d’une vidéo j’ai utilisé l’application Carbonalyser développée par Richard Hanna en collaboration avec le Shift Project. Les graphiques sont là pour montrer des ordres de grandeur et ne se veulent pas extremement précis. Les chiffres sont arrondis.

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