The history of disruption in the recording industry (Format evolution)

As the recording industry goes, so will follow every other industry in the transition from physical to digital.

Source: Recorded music sales by format – Business Insider

The recording industry was the first media business to feel the transition from physical to digital formats in a big way.

Goldman Sachs went through data from the RIAA, a U.S. music industry group, to chart the rise and fall of various music formats over the last 42 years. (The left axis shows revenue in millions of dollars — so the peak in the the earlly 2000s was around $14 billion a year.)

The industry benefited when people replaced their physical analog recordings (LPs and cassettes) with digital CDs. But the rise of MP3 players and ever-faster internet connections soon made owning CDs obsolete. Piracy took off, and sales of online digital formats — first downloads, now streaming — haven’t made up the difference.

Print publications, books, movies, and television all face the same kind of disruption. The outcomes will depend on a lot of factors, including how well they defend their content from piracy, the speed with which they embrace what customers want, and the emergence of a single dominant company in any phase of the transition, as Apple dominated the early days of legal music downloads.

COTD 122315Goldman Sachs/RIAA


Music Business and Big Data: Next Big Sound estimates potential hits (based on data from Spotify, Instagram, … )

To Make A Chart-Topping Song, Think ‘Slightly Unconventional’ | Spotify Insights.

What makes a hit song? People have been chasing that formula since the earliest days of the recorded music industry, and nobody has found it. One company that tries, Next Big Soundestimates its success rate at picking songs that will soon make the Billboard 200 (based on data from Spotify, Instagram, and other sources) at only 20 percent.

Here’s another prediction: Nobody will ever predict, with total accuracy, which songs will reach the pinnacle of the charts. That is not to say it’s impossible to make a song with a good chance of doing well, or to figure out what kinds of songs are more likely to become hits given listening data, the cultural preferences of the time, and/or the instincts of pro hitmakers.

It’s a tricky thing, as demonstrated by new research into the audio attributes of over 25,000 songs on the Billboard 100 from 1958 to 2013. The trick: To be a hit, a song should sound different from anything on the charts, but not so different that it falls off of the cultural radar of the time.

To decide what makes a song conventional or an outlier, Noah Askin (Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior at INSEAD, in Paris) and Michael Mauskapf (PhD student in Management & Organizations at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management, in Chicago) used audio analysis from The Echo Nest at Spotify to create a new metric called Song Conventionality (methodology below).

It’s ‘Only’ At The Top

Their graph shows that songs in the top 20 show the least amount of conventionality out of any section of the Billboard Hot 100 over time. The farthest outliers, from a musical perspective (based on audio attributes and genre as described below), are the winners:


If a song is too weird, it’s unlikely to make the charts at all, of course; songs at the top of the charts are more similar to each other than stuff from obscure genres of limited (if passionate) appeal.

But within the charts, songs at the top are more likely to sound unconventional than songs in the middle. At the bottom of the Hot 100, we see a bit more deviation from the popular musical conventions of the time, but still nowhere near as much as within the top 20.

Are these findings statistically significant? Yes.

“These graphs are just a descriptive representation of the data; when we run our explanatory models, and control for a host of other effects,” responded Mauskapf. “We find that the relationship between conventionality and chart position is statistically significant (e.g., for songs that appear on the charts, higher levels of conventionality tend to hurt their chart position, except for those songs that are exceptionally novel).“

So ironically, in order for large swaths of the population to connect with a song, it has to sound different from the other stuff that’s popular at the same time. We appear to crave convention, but crave something different most of all.

Unconventionality Reigns Among the Hits

Let’s take a closer look at the very top of the chart, where the same effect can be seen, with a larger effect the closer you get to the coveted Number 1 spot:


The top song is the least conventional of the top 10. The top 10 are less conventional than the top 20.

If these results are any indication, if an artist and their people wants to put something out that has a good chance of making it to the very top of the charts, they should make something that stands out from the pack by moving in a different musical direction than everyone else’s releases.

So, the moral of the story: Do something different. What, exactly? That’s the hard part.

(As if on cue, as we prepared to post the article you’re reading now, we spotted an article from Slate about how varied the hits were this year, jibing with this research.)

Researchers’ Summary

From Askin and Mauskapf:

  • “When evaluating cultural products, attributes matter, above and beyond social influence dynamics and symbolic classifications like genre.
  • “Attributes shape performance outcomes directly and indirectly, through a relational ecosystem of cultural products we call ‘cultural networks.’
  • “Songs that are slightly less conventional than average tend to outperform their peers on the charts.
  • “Nevertheless, predicting hit songs is nearly impossible to do, because performance is largely contingent on a song’s relationship to other songs that are produced and released contemporaneously.”

Behind The Scenes

“We used The Echo Nest’s attributes to build a ‘song conventionality’ measure and construct networks of songs for each week of the Billboard Hot 100,” explained Askin and Mauskapf in a summary shared with Spotify Insights. “[The below figure] shows one such network, in which the ‘nodes’ are songs and the ‘ties’ between them represent shared genre affiliations and greater-than-average attribute overlap.”

“Our findings suggest that the crowding of attributes within a cultural network can hinder songs’ movement up the charts.”

Here’s a depiction of one song network they made showing their audio and genre similarities (explanation below):


“The spatial relationship [in the chart above] is a function of both a commonly-used network layout algorithm (Fruchterman-Reingold) and of attribute similarity, such that the greater the distance between two songs–>the more dissimilar those songs are across the Echo Nest attribute space (measured using cosine similarities). Colors represent genres; not surprisingly, songs of the same genre tend to cluster together, and certain clusters(e.g., rock and pop) tend to be more sonically similar than others (e.g., rock and funk.soul). Notice however that some songs do not fit the genre clustering pattern, and act instead as brokers between two or more genres (e.g., Little Latin Lupe Lu).”

For any other music scientists who happen to be reading this, here’s some further background on how this research was done.

“1) First, we used a cosine similarity measure to assess the overall degree of Echo Nest audio attribute overlap for each song pair on a particular chart. Put another way, for each song on every chart, we calculated 99 cosine similarity measures to represent the degree of attribute overlap with every other song on that chart. Cosine similarities vary from 0 to 1, and are a common way to measure “distance” across a multi-dimensional attribute space.

“2) The above measure represents songs’ raw attribute similarity, but two songs that have similar sonic attributes may be perceived differently if they are embedded in different genres. Because listeners’ perceptions of a song’s attributes are likely to be influenced by genre affiliation(s), we wanted to weight each song pair’s cosine similarity by the average attribute overlap of those songs’ “home” genres. To do this, we calculated yearly attribute averages for each genre, and then used the same cosine similarity equation to measure the average attribute overlap of each genre pair. The resulting weights were then applied to the raw similarity measures for each song pair. For example: if one rock song and one folk song had a raw cosine similarity of 0.75, and the average cosine similarity between rock and folk is 0.8, then that genre-weighted cosine similarity for those two songs would be 0.75 * 0.8 = 0.6.

“3) After we had calculated genre-weighted cosine similarity measures for each song pair on each chart, we calculated the mean. The resulting value represents each song’s “conventionality” score for a given week. The higher a song’s conventionality score, the more alike that song is to other songs on the chart.

“The average genre-weighted song conventionality score across Hot 100 songs was a little under 0.8, which suggests that, for the most part, songs that achieve some level of popular success are very much alike. In our analysis, we try to tease apart small variations in this measure to explain why, controlling for the effects of genre, artist popularity, and a host of other factors, some songs tend to do better than others.”

You can contact the authors of this research at

Music Piracy: Consumers do prefer legal and ethical options, but they favour different ways of making this economically viable.- (Vlerick Business School)

Business model insights on how to beat music piracy – Vlerick Business School.

Business model insights on how to beat music piracy

In recent years, the popularisation of the World Wide Web and the rise of mobile music hardware have intensified online music piracy. Prof Dr Bert Weijters, Prof Dr Frank Goedertier and Sofie Verstreken have published an academic research study that examines music consumption preferences in today’s new context in which consumers face a myriad of music platforms with diverse business models and delivery modes. Counter-intuitively, the results show that consumers do prefer legal and ethical options, if available – but they favour different ways of making this economically viable.

Past research has argued that youngsters, in particular, use online technologies and platforms that facilitate piracy – and that youngsters seem to attach less importance to the ethical and legal aspects of music consumption. However, much of this research dates from an era in which ‘free’ was nearly synonymous with ‘unethical’ and ‘illegal’. That is, in the past, most applications offering cheap and convenient online access to music were illegal and did not create revenues for the artists. This raises the question: what truly drives youth’s music piracy consumption choices: a drive to defy the law, economic reasons, or convenience? 

The current consumption context

The current context has changed and offers a wide variety of legal and illegal online music consumption possibilities (including file-hosting services, free with advertising streaming platforms, paying streaming models with the possibility to download, video converter programs, etc.).

This new context allows, and calls for, research that studies potential music consumption driving factors in a disentangled way. The research discussed independently examines ethical concerns and other music consumption preferences (e.g., quality, streaming versus downloading, presence of advertising, etc.) as explanations of age group differences in online music consumption.

The research responds to an urgent business need: industry stakeholders are uncertain about how to respond to illegal music consumption and are looking for up-to-date information related to the specific preferences of music consumers in this new context.

6 online music consumer segments

Prof Dr Weijters, Prof Dr Goedertier and Sofie Verstreken undertook their study to update the extant literature on online music consumption – taking today’s technological context into account. Specifically, their goal was to better understand the way consumers in different age groups make choices when faced with alternative music platforms that vary in a wide range of attributes, including the extent to which they are legal and ethical.

Their research identifies 6 online music consumer segments and suggests specific ways of approaching them:

  • Free users are the youngest segment, and nearly all of these consumers have experience with downloading and/or streaming music. They are the most online music savvy segment and have an outspoken preference for free online music. Good quality is important to this segment, which means that ‘free users’ are not willing to sacrifice quality in exchange for free music.
  • Quality seekers value high audio quality. They are the second most experienced segment – a high proportion of these consumers have downloaded before. Although this segment also shows a preference for free music, it is much less outspoken than the free users, so it is reasonable to expect a certain willingness to pay for (high-quality) music.
  • Average users have music consumption preferences that are in line with the overall findings: i.e. high quality, legal and ethical (though less so than the quality seekers, law-abiding, and ethical consumers segments, respectively).
  • The Indifferent segment is not very opinionated, except for a preference for downloading (with or without streaming). Limited experience with online music may be the reason for this, as nearly 23% of this segment have not downloaded or streamed music before. This is the only segment not concerned with quality.
  • The Law-abiding segment is relatively inexperienced, and these consumers seem relatively indifferent towards quality. Their predominant criterion in choosing an online music platform is that it is legal.
  • Ethical consumers, the smallest segment, attach most importance to artists getting a fair share of revenues. Remarkably, these consumers emerge as a segment distinct from the law-abiding segment. This suggests that consumers differentiate between legality and ethicality, and that consumers who care about the one aspect do not necessarily care equally about the other.

Managerial implications

In general, this study suggests that the most promising avenues towards a more legal and ethical online music offering are:

1)    A free music approach, supported by advertising, targeted at younger consumers and/or the free users segment (the two clearly overlap), and

2)    A high-quality music approach, with the possibility to download for which a price can be charged, targeted at older consumers and/or the quality seekers segment.

Interestingly, the older segment prefers the legal/ethical options, while the younger segment prefers the illegal option over the legal paying option. This is not because of a difference in preference for ethical or legal alternatives, but because of a stronger preference for free music.

This shows that, in real-life choices, youngsters may appear to be less ethical and law-abiding, but the driving force behind this is mainly economic. In a way, this is reassuring, as it suggests that music piracymay be less deeply ingrained in the youth culture and norms than previously thought.


Source: “Online Music Consumption in Today’s Technological Context: Putting the Influence of Ethics in Perspective” by Prof. Dr. Bert Weijters (Department of Personnel Management, Work and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University), Prof. Dr. Frank Goedertier (Consumer Marketing, Retail & Branding Cluster, Area Marketing, Vlerick Business School) and Sofie Verstreken (Think BBDO, Belgium). Published online in the Journal of Business Ethics, 25 September 2013 (ISNN 0167-4544).

Billboard Twitter Real-Time Charts Go Live | Billboard

Billboard Twitter Real-Time Charts Go Live | Billboard.


Billboard and Twitter officially launch the Billboard Twitter Real-Time Charts. These new, interactive charts redefine how fans interact with, and influence, popular content by ranking the most popular songs being shared on Twitter in the U.S.

The first of the real-time charts, the Billboard Trending 140, is an up to the minute ranking of songs shared in the U.S., measured by acceleration over the past hour. This chart can be filtered to present a real-time view of the most shared track in the U.S. over the past 24 hours, with a weekly summary presented as the Billboard Twitter Top Tracks chart on and in print in Billboard.

The Billboard Twitter Emerging Artists chart is a ranking of the most shared songs on Twitter in the U.S. by up-and-coming artists ranked by the number of times each song was shared over the past 24 hours. Billboard Twitter Emerging Artists is presented as a seven-day/weekly round up on and in print in Billboard.

Realtime Billboard:

Song shares are tracked and incorporated into the Billboard Twitter Real-Time Charts by:

*  the use of, or the inclusion, of a link to the song via music listening platforms, such as Spotify, Vevo and iTunes.

*  the use of various track sharing notations, such as the hashtags “#nowplaying” or “#np,” along with song/artist name.

*  the use of various terms associated with the song and song playing, such as “music,” “song,” “track,” “listen.”

The charts are specifically designed to work with how users share and interact with music on Twitter, which is the most discussed subject on the platform in the U.S. with more than one billion Tweets sent about the topic in 2013. One-hundred million of those Tweets came from music accounts, and seven of the top 10 most-followed accounts on the entire platform are musicians.

“I am thrilled to be one of the first artists to see my songs move on the Billboard Twitter Charts,” said Mahone. “For me, it’s always about my fans, and I love seeing what all my Mahomies are saying about the new EP – it’s exciting that there’s finally a platform that tracks what the fans are saying about music in real-time.”To launch the Billboard Twitter Real-Time charts, Billboard teamed up with pop star Austin Mahoneto showcase just how the sharing of a track by fans on Twitter, in this case with “The Shadow” – a song from his just-released EP “The Secret” – can drive popularity and chart ranking.

The Billboard Twitter Real-Time charts are another example of Billboard staying at the forefront of tracking music consumption. With the launch in recent years of the Social 50On-Demand Songs and Streaming Songs, and now the Billboard Twitter Real-Time charts, Billboard has empowered music fans and music consumers with rankings that reflect how they interact with music and artists.

Consistent placement in the high rankings of the real-time chart can help artists gain placement on the two weekly versions of the real-time charts, which will be found in print each week in Billboard magazine.

Les ventes digitales de Warner Music pèsent plus que ses ventes physiques – JDN Média

Les ventes digitales de Warner Music pèsent plus que ses ventes physiques – JDN Média.

L’exemple de la Major est symptomatique d’une industrie qui, après avoir critiqué Internet, y voit sa dernière bulle d’oxygène.

Le marché de l’industrie musicale est un marché extrêmement concentré, contrôlé à 75% par trois acteurs, Sony Music, Universal Music et Warner Music. Des majors qui ont vu leurs revenus en provenance des ventes physiques dégringoler d’année en année et qui ont réussi à endiguer cette érosion de leur chiffre d’affaires en concentrant leurs efforts sur une offre digitale en plein boom. Les contrats noués avec des pure players comme Deezer ou Spotify, qui reversent l’équivalent de 60% de leurs recettes à chacun des acteurs (au prorata de leur part de marché) ont fait vivre le tiroir-caisse. Ainsi 2013 a-t-il permis aux trois groupes de renouer avec la croissance de leur chiffre d’affaires, après trois exercices périlleux.

A gauche, l’évolution du chiffre d’affaires des 3 majors. A droite, leus parts de marchés.  © Xerfi

Longtemps considéré comme l’ennemi à abattre, Internet a, sans aucun doute, constitué une véritable bulle d’oxygène pour ces majors, avec des ventes digitales qui n’ont cessé de croître au fil des années, pour dépasser les 4,3 milliards d’euros en 2012 (soit une part de marché de 35%).

Warner Music, qui pèse à peu près 15% du marché de la musique, a poussé la logique encore plus loin, multipliant les partenariats avec des acteurs tels que la plateforme Myxer (dont il alimente la communauté en clips vidéos et sonneries de téléphone), Qtrax (une plateforme gratuite de téléchargement de musique) ou MySpace. Warner Music a ainsi vu ses ventes digitales passer de 255 millions d’euros en 2006 à 776 millions d’euros en 2013, alors que dans le même temps ses ventes physiques chutaient de 177%, pour passer de 1,9 milliards d’euros à 700 millions. Warner Music gagne donc plus avec la vente digitale qu’avec la vente physique !

Evolution de la répartition du chiffre d’affaires de Warner Music.  © Xerfi

Entre, d’une part, une offre par abonnement portée par des pure players comme Deezer, Spotify et bientôt Beats, et, d’autre part, un achat à l’acte initié par les iTunes, Amazon et consorts, on se rend compte que la situation diffère énormément selon les marchés. Ainsi l’Hexagone, la Suède ou la Corée du Sud donnent-ils la part belle à l’abonnement alors qu’aux Etats-Unis, en Allemagne ou au Royaume-Uni, le rapport de force est inversé.

stream vs dl
Téléchargement vs Streaming, par pays.  © Xerfi

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L’étude “Industries du film de et la musique. Analyse de marché – tendances à l’horizon 2019 – stratégies des acteurs” est publiée par Xerfi, éditeur indépendant d’études économiques sectorielles.

Spotify, un succès mondial, un gros bémol des artistes

Spotify, un succès mondial, un gros bémol des artistes.

L'Allemagne est le treizième pays dans lequel le site de streaming musical ouvre son service en langue locale

L'Allemagne est le treizième pays dans lequel le site de streaming musical ouvre son service en langue localeL’Allemagne est le treizième pays dans lequel le site de streaming musical ouvre son service en langue locale

Delphine Cuny

Le site lancé en Suède il y a trois ans vient d’ouvrir son 13e pays, l’Allemagne. Il est la 2e plus grande source de revenus de la musique numérique en Europe, derrière iTunes d’Apple. Mais certains artistes lui reprochent de ne pas leur rapporter assez d’argent.

Spotify, nouvel ami de l’industrie musicale ou dangereux apôtre du gratuit ? Les avis sont encore partagés dans le milieu du disque, chez les artistes en particulier. Le site d’écoute de musique en streaming (diffusion en continu, par opposition au téléchargement), qui se présente comme « le service de musique digital leader », accélère son expansion géographique et est en train de devenir incontournable : il vient d’annoncer l’ouverture de sontreizième pays, l’Allemagne, ce mardi. Fort d’un catalogue de plus de 16 millions de chansons, la start-up suédoise qui a installé son siège à Londres compte aujourd’hui plus de 10 millions d’utilisateurs actifs en Europe et aux Etats-Unis. Plus des deux tiers consomment de la musique gratuitement : le service Spotify Free donne un accès illimité, financé par la publicité, pendant six mois, puis avec des limites (10 heures par mois, 5 écoutes gratuites par titre, etc). Le site compte un peu plus de 3 millions d’abonnés à ses offres payantes sans pub (à 4,99 euros et 9,99 euros par mois pour la version premium multi-écrans). « Depuis notre lancement il y a seulement trois ans, nous avons reversé environ un quart de milliard de dollars (200 millions d’euros) aux labels et aux éditeurs, qui à leur tour redistribuent aux artistes, compositeurs, et auteurs qu’ils représentent. Spotify est la deuxième plus grande source de revenus dans le secteur de la musique numérique en Europe », derrière iTunes d’Apple, selon les chiffres de l’IFPI, « assurant ainsi que les artistes soient rétribués équitablement » souligne l’entreprise.

Rébellion d’artistes comme Coldplay et Adele 
Ce petit rappel n’est pas anodin. Plusieurs artistes de premier plan se sont rebellés ces derniers mois contre Spotify, que certains comparent au Napster ancienne version. Le groupe britannique Coldplay a refusé pendant trois mois que son dernier opus « Mylo Xyloto » soit disponible sur la plateforme Spotify, préférant promouvoir les ventes sur iTunes. L’artiste anglaise Adele a demandé que son album « 21 » ne soit accessible qu’aux abonnés payants (soit 20% des inscrits), ce qu’a refusé le site. Certains artistes sont introuvables sur des plateformes de streaming comme les Beatles, Metallica ou AC/DC. D’autres ont fait retirer leurs titres du site jugeant que les royalties perçues étaient dérisoires, estimées à 1 euro pour 1.000 streams, déduction faite de la part revenant à la maison de disque.

En constatant que des milliers de diffusion ne lui rapportaient presque rien, la chanteuse LaRoux s’est écriée « ça suffit, je retire mon album, les royalties couvrent à peine de quoi s’acheter un jeu de cordes de guitare ! » a raconté Jazz Summers, son manager et celui du groupe The Verve, au quotidien « The Independent ». Selon le manager de U2, Paul McGuinness, « Spotify doit encore se rendre populaire aux yeux des artistes, qui ne voient pas l’intérêt financier pour eux. C’est en partie la faute des labels, puisqu’ils possèdent en partie Spotify, et il y a un manque de transparence » a-t-il déclaré le mois dernier au magazine spécialisé américain Billboard. En effet, impossible d’obtenir confirmation de ce secret de polichinelle mais les quatre grandes majors (Universal, Sony Music, Warner, EMI) sont actionnaires de Spotify (à hauteur de 2% à 6% du capital chacune selon Bloomberg), aux côtés d’autres investisseurs : l’été dernier, la société a levé 100 millions de dollars pour se lancer aux Etats-Unis auprès de DST, de Kleiner Perkins et d’Accel, sur la base d’unevalorisation de 1 milliard de dollars.

Des utilisateurs qui n’ont jamais acheté de CD 
« Spotify génère de sérieux revenus aux ayants droit », rappelle l’entreprise. Ses comptes sont d’ailleurs éloquents : en 2010 (derniers chiffres connus), la société a reversé 64 millions de livres sterling en royalties, soit autant que son chiffre d’affaires (63,2 millions de livres), ce qui s’est traduit par une perte après impôts de 26,5 millions. Le modèle économique reste difficile à trouver, ce qui a conduit son concurrent français Deezer à s’adosser à l’opérateur Orange.

Spotify mise beaucoup sur son intégration avec Facebook, qui favorise le partage, l’écoute par recommandation. Son pari est de convertir au payant ses utilisateurs les plus mélomanes. « Il faudra du temps à certains artistes pour réaliser l’intérêt d’offrir leur musique à notre audience. De nombreux utilisateurs de notre site appartiennent à une génération qui n’a rarement, voire jamais, acheté de CD ou de MP3… » a réagi Spotify quand Coldplay lui a finalement confié son album. Selon le site de streaming, « il n’y a pas la moindre preuve que ne pas diffuser un album sur Spotify soutient les ventes globales d’aucune façon. Cela ne fait que punir les fans actuels ou futurs pour avoir choisi un site légal de musique et cela les contraint à aller sur des sites de bit torrent [de partage de fichiers en général illégaux NDLR] ou sur YouTube » a-t-il plaidé au sujet du refus d’Adele. Car le site rappelle qu’il s’est lancé en 2008 « dans le but de créer une meilleure alternative plus facile et légale face au piratage de musique. »

Labels, artistes : spotify bataille  , Actualités

labels, artistes : spotify bataille  , Actualités.

Spotify a récemment choisi de ne pas diffuser sur son service le dernier album de la chanteuse Adele, trop exigeante. Les négociations avec ses représentants ont été rompues, symbole des relations de plus en plus tendues avec certains labels. Il y a deux semaines, c’est Paul McCartney qui avait retiré tout son catalogue des services de « streaming », estimant ne pas être suffisamment rémunéré par les ventes. Et, fin 2011, ce sont 200 labels indépendants, représentant certes une infime partie du catalogue de Spotify, qui avaient claqué la porte. Des désertions qui n’empêchent pas la société suédoise de croître. Spotify a récemment dépassé les 3 millions d’utilisateurs payants, pour un total de 15 millions d’utilisateurs.

Spotify améliore son application

Spotify ne cesse de développer son application. Cette fois ci, il s’attaque à la version pour ordinateur (Mac et PC). La dernière version apporte ainsi la lecture en continu et le fondu enchaîné. Si la première fonction est activée par défaut et enchaîne les morceaux sans silence, la deuxième doit se paramétrer dans les préférences.

Les améliorations ne s’arrêtent pas là. La société avance de nombreux changement en terme d’ergonomie comme une meilleure navigation sur la pages des artistes et une organisation revue pour la présentation des albums. Les listes pour les contacts, les favoris, et les abonnements aux autres utilisateurs sont aussi améliorées selon le point de vue de Spotify.

La lecture doit aussi reprendre là où elle s’était arrêter lors du redémarrage de l’application.

La mise à jour doit normalement être proposées lors du lancement de Spotify, qui redémarrera pour la prendre en compte.